This article is about the Stained Glass Windows in St Lawrence Church.
Separate articles list details of
- the Church Monuments (wall and floor monuments) inside the church, and
- the Monumental Inscriptions on the many tombs in St Lawrence churchyard.
There are many fine stained-glass windows in St Lawrence Church. None is thought to pre-date the re-building of 1816.
What is stained glass?
The making of stained-glass windows has hardly changed since the 12th century. A stained-glass window consists of pieces of coloured glass held together in a latticed web of lead. The glass has previously had details of faces, hands and drapery painted and fired on to it in black or brown paint. About the year 1300, yellow stain was discovered, This had the ability to turn white glass yellow or blue glass green, and was extremely useful in the highlighting of hair, haloes and crowns.
Stained glass continued to flourish in England until the Reformation of the Church in the 1540s when changes in religious outlook undermined the need for sacred art.
Although coloured glass continued to be made in the 17th and 18th centuries, the craft declined and skills were lost.
Only in the mid 19th century was there a serious attempt to rediscover the techniques of the medieval glazier, and from the 1850s, the quality of coloured glass approached that of the medieval glaziers.
Today almost all parish churches and cathedrals contain Victorian windows. Their quality and craftsmanship are now widely recognised.
So much of the detailed painting of the glass of any period (but especially the post Reformation glass) has deteriorated because it was not properly fused to the glass during manufacture. The painting of stained glass requires special paint to be made of a ferrous oxide/finely ground glass compound, mixed with water, turps, ascetic acid, and/or lavender oil. Once the paint is dry on the glass, it has to be fused onto the glass at a temperature of 650-690ºC - when the molten glass surface should fuse with the molten glass paint. All too commonly this was not properly achieved, and the paint deteriorates with condensation and dampness.
The stained glass windows in St Lawrence Church:
Eight of the nine large windows are in a consistent Gothic Revival, quasi fifteenth century style. The main windows are said to have cost less than £100 each.
There is some doubt about the dates of some of the windows, and the manufacturers involved:
- The earliest window (now Window 10=VIIIs but originally the East Window, 5=I), dating from 1815-16, is by William Collins, who ran a china and glass business at 287 The Strand, London (near Temple Bar). It is not clear whether Collins was himself a glass-painter, but it is known that he employed painters, including Charles Muss (1779–1824), described as ‘possessed [of] talent far superior to those generally engaged in that vocation’ and ‘enamel painter to the King’.
- Several are by the London firm of Lavers, Barraud and Westlake. The firm was set up in 1855 by Nathaniel Wood Lavers (1828-1911). Lavers was joined in 1858 by Francis Philip Barraud (1824-1900). In 1868 Nathaniel H J Westlake was made a partner in the firm, which continuied to operate until a few years after his death in 1921. They were commissioned to instal the east window (window 5) and two windows (windows 2 and 3) at the time of the major rebuilding of 1880-89.
- Others are by the firm of Heaton, Butler and Bayne. Clement Heaton (1824–82) originally founded his own stained glass firm in 1852, joined by James Butler (1830-1913) in 1855. Their studios were in Covent Garden, London. Between 1859 and 1861 they worked alongside Clayton and Bell and were joined by Robert Turnill Bayne (1837-1915), who became their sole designer and a full partner in the firm in 1862. The firm was known as Heaton, Butler and Bayne from 1862.The business was eventually passed to Basil Bayne (1897-1953).
- The small window over the entrance door (Window 9) is from 1900. It is by Clayton and Bell. Clayton and Bell was one of the most prolific and proficient workshops of English stained glass during the latter half of the 19th century. The partners were John Richard Clayton (London, 1827–1913) and Alfred Bell (Silton, Dorset, 1832–95). The company was founded in 1855 and continued until 1993. Their windows are found throughout the United Kingdom, in the United States, Canada, Australia and New Zealand.
Some light is shed by "The Story of Hungerford Parish Church" which originated as a text by Rev A T Finch, added to by Rev Wardley-King (Vicar 1924-53), published in 1938, second edition 1946:"Space does not permit a detailed account of the numerous stained-glass windows that adorn the church: all are modern, but are artistically designed and mellow in tone.
The Rey, J. B. Anstice, Vicar 1866-94, is commemorated by three windows: the restored east window, which shows Our Lord's Charge to St. Peter; one in the south aisle, representing the Sermon on the Mount, and erected by assistant clergy who served under Mr. Anstice; and one in the north aisle given by the Parishioners in 1889 as a token of sympathy for their Vicar, whose sight was then failing: the central light shows the healing of blind Bartimaeus.
Two other windows in the north aisle commemorate Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee, their cost was defrayed from a window fund organised by Mr. Anstice: they represent respectively the Transfiguration and the raising of Jairus' daughter."
There is detail of all the windows in the St Lawrence's Church Inventory 1940-1980.
The stained glass windows are numbered in this article as 1-10. In brackets is the reference code as used by Salisbury Cathedral Stained Glass Department, 2012-13, conforming to the requirements of the CVMA and Historic England. The plan is shown in the Photo Gallery.
|1 (Vn) N aisle, 2nd from left||The Raising of Jairus's Daughter||Lavers, Barraud & Westlake||1897|
|2 (IVn) N aisle, 2nd from right||The Transfiguration||Lavers, Barraud & Westlake||1889|
|3 (IIIn) N aisle, right||Three healing miracles||Lavers, Barraud & Westlake||1889|
|4 (IIn) N aisle, east window||Palm Sunday||Lavers, Barraud & Westlake||1891|
|5 (I) East Window||The Forgiving of Peter||Lavers, Barraud & Westlake||1895|
|6 (IIs) S aisle, east window||Our Lord in the Temple||Lavers, Barraud & Westlake||1893|
|7 (IIIs) S aisle, left window||The Wedding at Cana||Heaton & Butler||1886|
|8 (IVs) S aisle, 2nd from left||The Sermon on the Mount||Heaton, Butler and Bayne||1880|
|9 (VIs) S aisle, over entrance||Sts Osmund, Lawrence and Frideswide||Clayton and Bell||1900|
|10 (VIIIs) Vestry, west wall||I am the Alpha and the Omega||William Collins||1815|
The windows were cleaned by the Salisbury Cathedral Stained Glass department in 2012-13, funded by the Friends of St Lawrence..
Note: Embedded in the text are improved images of the windows, kindly supplied by Tony Bartlett (Feb 2016). Larger images appear if you roll-over each image with your mouse.
Window 1 (Vn): "The Raising of Jairus’s Daughter" - Luke 8, 40-56.
North wall, 2nd from left. By Nathaniel Westlake of Lavers, Barraud & Westlake, installed in 1897 to commemorate Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee. The cost was defrayed from a "Window fund" organised by Rev JB Anstice.
"Now when Jesus returned, a crowd welcomed him, for they were all expecting him. Then a man named Jairus, a synagogue leader, came and fell at Jesus’ feet, pleading with him to come to his house because his only daughter, a girl of about twelve, was dying.
As Jesus was on his way, the crowds almost crushed him. And a woman was there who had been subject to bleeding for twelve years, but no one could heal her. She came up behind him and touched the edge of his cloak, and immediately her bleeding stopped.
“Who touched me?” Jesus asked. When they all denied it, Peter said, “Master, the people are crowding and pressing against you.” But Jesus said, “Someone touched me; I know that power has gone out from me.”
Then the woman, seeing that she could not go unnoticed, came trembling and fell at his feet. In the presence of all the people, she told why she had touched him and how she had been instantly healed. Then he said to her, “Daughter, your faith has healed you. Go in peace.”
While Jesus was still speaking, someone came from the house of Jairus, the synagogue leader. “Your daughter is dead,” he said. “Don’t bother the teacher anymore.”
Hearing this, Jesus said to Jairus, “Don’t be afraid; just believe, and she will be healed.”
When he arrived at the house of Jairus, he did not let anyone go in with him except Peter, John and James, and the child’s father and mother. Meanwhile, all the people were wailing and mourning for her. “Stop wailing,” Jesus said. “She is not dead but asleep.”
They laughed at him, knowing that she was dead. But he took her by the hand and said, “My child, get up!” Her spirit returned, and at once she stood up. Then Jesus told them to give her something to eat. Her parents were astonished, but he ordered them not to tell anyone what had happened."
Window 2 (IVn): "The Transfiguration" - Luke 9, 28-36
North wall, 2nd from right, 1889. By Nathaniel Westlake of Lavers & Westlake. There is no inscription. Notes by Rev Finch (HHA Archive) include "Aug 8th 1889: Dedication Festival of Parish Church held at which two new windows in the Nave were unveiled from the studio of Messrs Lavers & Westlake. One the Transfiguration of our Lord. The other three miracles...".
The Transfiguration on Mount Tabor. Our Lord appears in Glory between Moses and Elijah, attended by the three chosen Apostles - St. Peter, St. James and St. John.
"About eight days after Jesus said this, he took Peter, John and James with him and went up onto a mountain to pray. As he was praying, the appearance of his face changed, and his clothes became as bright as a flash of lightning. Two men, Moses and Elijah, appeared in glorious splendor, talking with Jesus. They spoke about his departure,[a] which he was about to bring to fulfillment at Jerusalem. Peter and his companions were very sleepy, but when they became fully awake, they saw his glory and the two men standing with him. As the men were leaving Jesus, Peter said to him, “Master, it is good for us to be here. Let us put up three shelters—one for you, one for Moses and one for Elijah.” (He did not know what he was saying.)
While he was speaking, a cloud appeared and covered them, and they were afraid as they entered the cloud. A voice came from the cloud, saying, “This is my Son, whom I have chosen; listen to him.” When the voice had spoken, they found that Jesus was alone. The disciples kept this to themselves and did not tell anyone at that time what they had seen."
Window 3 (IIIn): "Three healing miracles: The leper (Matthew 8); Blind Bartameus (Luke 5) and the man through the roof (Mark 2)":
North wall, right window, 1889, by Nathaniel Westlake of Lavers & Westlake. Notes by Rev Finch (HHA Archive) include "Aug 8th 1889: Dedication Festival of Parish Church held at which two new windows in the Nave were unveiled from the studio of Messrs Lavers & Westlake. One the Transfiguration of our Lord. The other three miracles...". This window was installed in 1889 and was given by the Parishioners as a token of sympathy for their Vicar, Rev Anstice, whose sight was then failing:
- The left panel shows our Lord cleansing the leper.
- The middle panel shows the healing of blind Bartimaeus.
- The right panel shows Him healing the sick of the palsy.
- The single canopy extending throughout the three lights combines the whole into one picture.
Below is the legend "J.B.A. Dominus illuminato mea, 1889".
The Church Inventory 1940-90 states "It is interesting to note that the blind man's features are singularly like those of the Vicar."
In addition to this window, the Rey, J. B. Anstice, Vicar 1866-94, is commemorated by two other windows: the restored east window, which shows Our Lord's Charge to St. Peter; and Window 8 in the south aisle, representing the Sermon on the Mount, and erected by assistant clergy who served under Mr. Anstice.
Window 4 (IIn): "Our Lord's entry into Jerusalem", or "Palm Sunday" - Luke 19
North aisle, east window, 1891, designed by Nathaniel Westlake of Lavers, Barraud & Westlake. The window is a memorial window to Rev T H Michell, a member of the family resident at Standen Hussey (now Standen Manor). The Michell family grave is just outside the window: (235 IMO/the Rev. T.H.MICHELL died October 24th 1890 aged 62 years. "Looking for the Mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ". Also of ARABELLA JULIANNA MICHELL died at Bagshot August 29th 1905 aged 79 yrs. "Blessed be the Merciful for they shall obtain mercy". Monument - Mason's mark - J. Pound.). Near the bottom of the window is the dedication "In memoriam T H Michell MDCCCIC"
Jesus and Zacchaeus
As Jesus[a] entered Jericho and was passing through it, a man named Zacchaeus appeared. He was a leading tax collector, and a rich one at that! He was trying to see who Jesus was, but he couldn’t do so due to the crowd, since he was a short man. So he ran ahead and climbed a sycamore tree to see Jesus, who was going to pass that way.
When Jesus came to the tree, he looked up and said, “Zacchaeus, hurry and come down! I must stay at your house today.” Zacchaeus came down quickly and was glad to welcome him into his home.
But all the people who saw this began to complain: “Jesus is going to be the guest of a notorious sinner!”
Later, Zacchaeus stood up and announced to the Lord, “Look! I’m giving half of my possessions to the destitute, and if I have accused anyone falsely, I’m repaying four times as much as I owe.”
Then Jesus told him, “Today salvation has come to this home, because this man is also a descendant of Abraham, and the Son of Man has come to seek and to save the lost.”
The Parable about the Coins
As they were listening to this, Jesus[j] went on to tell a parable because he was near Jerusalem and because the people[k] thought that the kingdom of God would appear immediately. So he said, “A prince went to a distant country to be appointed king and then to return. He called ten of his servants and gave them ten coins. He told them, ‘Invest this money until I come back.’ But the citizens of his country hated him and sent a delegation to follow him and to announce, ‘We don’t want this man to rule over us!’
“After he was appointed king, the prince came back. He ordered the servants to whom he had given the money to be called so he could find out what they had earned by investing. The first servant came and said, ‘Sir, your coin has earned ten more coins.’ The king told him, ‘Well done, good servant! Because you have been trustworthy in a very small thing, take charge of ten cities.’
“The second servant came and said, ‘Your coin, sir, has earned five coins.’ The king told him, ‘You take charge of five cities.’
“Then the other servant came and said, ‘Sir, look! Here’s your coin. I’ve kept it in a cloth for safekeeping because I was afraid of you. You are a hard man. You withdraw what you didn’t deposit and harvest what you didn’t plant.’ The king told him, ‘I will judge you by your own words, you evil servant! You knew, did you, that I was a hard man, and that I withdraw what I didn’t deposit and harvest what I didn’t plant? Then why didn’t you put my money in the bank? When I returned, I could have collected it with interest.’
“So the king told those standing nearby, ‘Take the coin away from him and give it to the man who has the ten coins.’ They answered him, ‘Sir, he already has ten coins!’ ‘I tell you, to everyone who has something, more will be given, but from the person who has nothing, even what he has will be taken away. But as for these enemies of mine who didn’t want me to be their king—bring them here and slaughter them in my presence!’”
The King Enters Jerusalem
After Jesus had said this, he traveled on and went up to Jerusalem. As he approached Bethphage and Bethany at the Mount of Olives, he sent two of his disciples on ahead. “Go into the village ahead of you,” he said. “As you enter, you will find a colt tied up that no one has ever ridden. Untie it and bring it along. If anyone asks you why you are untying it, say this: ‘The Lord needs it.’”
So those who were sent went off and found it as Jesus had told them. While they were untying the colt, its owners asked them, “Why are you untying the colt?”
The disciples answered, “The Lord needs it.” Then they brought the colt to Jesus and put their coats on it, and Jesus sat upon it.
As he was riding along, people kept spreading their coats on the road. He was now approaching the descent from the Mount of Olives. The whole crowd of disciples began to rejoice and to praise God with a loud voice because of all the miracles they had seen. They said,
“How blessed is the king who comes in the name of the Lord!
Peace in heaven, and glory in the highest heaven!”
Some of the Pharisees in the crowd told Jesus, “Teacher, tell your disciples to be quiet.”
He replied, “I tell you, if they were quiet, the stones would cry out!”
When he came closer and saw the city, he began to grieve over it: “If you had only known today what could have brought you peace! But now it is hidden from your sight, because the days will come when your enemies will build walls around you, surround you, and close you in on every side. They will level you to the ground—you and those who live within your city limits. They will not leave one stone on another within your walls, because you didn’t recognize the time when you were visited.”
Confrontation in the Temple over Money
Then Jesus went into the Temple and began to throw out those who were selling things. He told them, “It is written, ‘My house is to be called a house of prayer,’ but you have turned it into a hideout for bandits!”
Then he began teaching in the Temple every day. The high priests, the scribes, and the leaders of the people kept looking for a way to kill him, but they couldn’t find a way to do it, because all the people were eager to hear him."
East window 5 (I): "The forgiving of Peter" or "Our Lord's Charge to Peter" - John 21, 15-18.
After the 1814-16 rebuilding of the church, the east window contained some stained glass - part of which can now be seen in Window 10 (VIIIs) in the vestry. The window depicted St Lawrence - "I am the Alpha and the Omega".
As part of the 1880-1889 restoration, the chancel and the east window were completely rebuilt. The Parish Magazine of September 1889 had recorded that "The Dedication Festival of the Parish Church, in connection with the reopening of the Chancel, was held on Thursday August 8 (1889), under very favourable circumstances. The repairs to the Chancel effected by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners consist of a new lead roof, and a ceiling of pitch pine panelled in accordance with the ceiling of the rest of the Church; a new East Window with beautiful tracery has been filled with tinted Cathedral glass...".
It seems that the "tinted Cathedral glass" of 1889 was replaced in 1895 by the present east window, installed to commemorate the work of the Rev JB Anstice, MA, vicar for 28 years between 1866 and 1894.
The design is by Nathaniel Westlake of Lavers, Barraud & Westlake. The Dedication service was held on 6 Jun 1895, when the Rev H M Patch, vicar of St Mary's Charterhouse (but formerly Curate at St Lawrence Church), preached and led the service.
Notes by Rev Finch (HHA Archive) include "The East Window (5 I) is filled with glass which was placed in position at the Restoration (1880) and is in substitution for the glass now in the South West window (10 VIIIs - "I am the Alpha and the Omega")". He goes on to say..."It was inserted [in the east window] in memory of the 28 years ministry of Revd J B Anstice, Vicar 1866-1894". There is confusion in his writing here. The transfer of the "Alpha and Omega" window from the east window to its current position (10 VIIIs) must have been in 1889 (after Rev Anstice's death), not 1880 - when he had been vicar for only 14 years! The Alpha and Omega window must be the one originally inserted in the east window (5 I) during the 1880-1886 restoration, and dedicated in 1889. It was then moved the current position in 1895.
The present (1895) window represents St Peter's charge to "Feed my Sheep". It is inscribed "This window is erected to the Glory of God by the parishioners, Clergy of the Denery and friends of the Revd J B Anstice, R D, in grateful remembrance of his 28 years work in the parish 1866-1894". Angels in priestly vesture bear a banner "Lord, Thou knowest all things.... Feed My sheep".
The window on the west wall of the Vestry (VIIIs) formerly occupied this position but it was transferred at the second restoration in 1887. Space could not be found for all of the glass, so the upper part which conspicuously exhibited the Arms of Hungerford town (the crescent and star) was discarded. The present restored east window of the sanctuary contains some of the original glass, with choirs of angels in the top lights. [from the Church Inventory 1940-90).
John 21, 15-18 states "When they had finished eating, Jesus said to Simon Peter, “Simon son of John, do you love me more than these?”. “Yes, Lord,” he said, “you know that I love you.” Jesus said, “Feed my lambs.” Again Jesus said, “Simon son of John, do you love me?” He answered, “Yes, Lord, you know that I love you.” Jesus said, “Take care of my sheep.”
The third time he said to him, “Simon son of John, do you love me?” Peter was hurt because Jesus asked him the third time, “Do you love me?” He said, “Lord, you know all things; you know that I love you.” Jesus said, “Feed my sheep. Very truly I tell you, when you were younger you dressed yourself and went where you wanted; but when you are old you will stretch out your hands, and someone else will dress you and lead you where you do not want to go.”
Window 6 (IIs): "Our Lord in the Temple" - Luke 1, 41-51.
South aisle, east window: by Lavers, Barraud and Westlake. "St Mary and St Joseph discovering the Boy Jesus in the Temple".
This window was installed in 1893 at a cost of about £80 paid for by the "Window Fund" organised by Rec JB Anstice:
"Every year Jesus’ parents went to Jerusalem for the Festival of the Passover. When he was twelve years old, they went up to the festival, according to the custom. After the festival was over, while his parents were returning home, the boy Jesus stayed behind in Jerusalem, but they were unaware of it. Thinking he was in their company, they traveled on for a day. Then they began looking for him among their relatives and friends. When they did not find him, they went back to Jerusalem to look for him.
After three days they found him in the temple courts, sitting among the teachers, listening to them and asking them questions. Everyone who heard him was amazed at his understanding and his answers. When his parents saw him, they were astonished. His mother said to him, “Son, why have you treated us like this? Your father and I have been anxiously searching for you.” “Why were you searching for me?” he asked. “Didn’t you know I had to be in my Father’s house?” But they did not understand what he was saying to them. Then he went down to Nazareth with them and was obedient to them. But his mother treasured all these things in her heart."
Window 7 (IIIs): "The Wedding at Cana" - John 2, 1-11.
South aisle wall, left window, 1886, by Heaton & Butler. Notes by Rev Finch include "Dec 1886: A second window erected by the Stained Glass Window Society, subject "First Miracle of our Lord wrought at Cana of Galilee" (Heaton & Butler)". The Church Inventory records "The Marriage Feast at Cana in Galilee. designed by Messrs Heaton & Butler, and erected in 1886, at a cost of about £80 , as a result of the aforementioned "Windows Fund".
"On the third day of that week there was a wedding in Cana of Galilee. Jesus’ mother was there, and Jesus and his disciples had also been invited to the wedding.
When the wine ran out, Jesus’ mother told him, “They don’t have any more wine.” “How does that concern us, dear lady?” Jesus asked her. “My time hasn’t come yet.” His mother told the servants, “Do whatever he tells you.”
Now standing there were six stone water jars used for the Jewish rites of purification, each one holding from two to three measures. Jesus told the servants, “Fill the jars with water.” So they filled them up to the brim. Then he told them, “Now draw some out and take it to the man in charge of the banquet.” So they did.
When the man in charge of the banquet tasted the water that had become wine (without knowing where it had come from, though the servants who had drawn the water knew), he called for the bridegroom and told him, “Everyone serves the best wine first, and the cheap kind when people are drunk. But you have kept the best wine until now!” Jesus did this, the first of his signs, in Cana of Galilee. He revealed his glory, and his disciples believed in him."
Window 8 (IVs): "The Sermon on the Mount" - Matthew 5.
South aisle wall, 2nd window from left, by Heaton, Butler and Bayne, installed 1880.
This window was funded by the assistant curates who served under Rev JB Anstice, MA, vicar from 1866.
A tablet beneath the window states:
A M D G
In piam observatiam erga Virum Reverendum
Josephum Ball Anstice, A.M.
Olim Collegii Sancti Johannis in Acedemia Cantabrigiensi Scholarem:
nunc decanum ruralem, et hujusce parochiae vicarium.
qui in hac ecclesia subministrabant hanc fenesiram ornandam curaverunt.
The inscription is translated: "To the greater glory of God - In pious regard for the Rev Joseph Ball Anstice, formerly scholar of St John's College, Cambridge, now Rural Dean and Vicar of this Parish. Twelve Clergy who served in this Church have had this window inserted, 1880".
Rev Anstice's work is commemorated by two other windows: Window 3 in the north aisle, and Window 5 (the East Window).
"When Jesus saw the crowds, he went up on the hill. After taking his seat, his disciples came to him, and he began to teach them."
The Blessed Attitudes
- “How blessed are those who are destitute in spirit, because the kingdom from[c] heaven belongs to them!
- “How blessed are those who mourn, because it is they who will be comforted!
- "How blessed are those who are humble, because it is they who will inherit the earth!
- “How blessed are those who are hungry and thirsty for righteousness, because it is they who will be satisfied!
- “How blessed are those who are merciful,because it is they who will receive mercy!
- “How blessed are those who are pure in heart, because it is they who will see God!
- “How blessed are those who make peace, because it is they who will be called God’s children!
- “How blessed are those who are persecuted for righteousness’ sake, because the kingdom from[f] heaven belongs to them!
- “How blessed are you whenever people insult you, persecute you, and say all sorts of evil things against you falsely because of me!
Rejoice and be extremely glad, because your reward in heaven is great! That’s how they persecuted the prophets who came before you.”
Salt and Light in the World:
“You are the salt of the world. But if the salt should lose its taste, how can it be made salty again? It’s good for nothing but to be thrown out and trampled on by people.
“You are the light of the world. A city located on a hill can’t be hidden. People don’t light a lamp and put it under a basket but on a lamp stand, and it gives light to everyone in the house. In the same way, let your light shine before people in such a way that they will see your good actions and glorify your Father in heaven.”
Jesus Fulfills the Law and the Prophets:
“Do not think that I came to destroy the Law or the Prophets. I didn’t come to destroy them, but to fulfill them, because I tell all of you[j] with certainty that until heaven and earth disappear, not one letter[k] or one stroke of a letter will disappear from the Law until everything has been accomplished. So whoever sets aside one of the least of these commandments and teaches others to do the same will be called least in the kingdom from heaven. But whoever does them and teaches them will be called great in the kingdom from heaven because I tell you, unless your righteousness greatly exceeds that of the scribes and Pharisees, you will never enter the kingdom from heaven!”
Teaching about Anger
“You have heard that it was told those who lived long ago, ‘You are not to commit murder,’ and, ‘Whoever murders will be subject to punishment.’ But I say to you, anyone who is angry with his brother without a cause will be subject to punishment. And whoever says to his brother ‘Raka!’ will be subject to the Council. And whoever says, ‘You fool!’ will be subject to hell fire.
“So if you are presenting your gift at the altar and remember there that your brother has something against you, leave your gift there before the altar and first go and be reconciled to your brother. Then come and offer your gift. Come to terms quickly with your opponent while you are on the way to court, or your opponent may hand you over to the judge, and the judge to the guard, and you will be thrown into prison. I tell you with certainty, you will not get out of there until you pay back the last dollar!”
Teaching about Adultery
“You have heard that it was said, ‘You are not to commit adultery.’ But I say to you, anyone who stares at a woman with lust for her has already committed adultery with her in his heart. So if your right eye causes you to sin, tear it out and throw it away. It is better for you to lose one of your body parts than to have your whole body thrown into hell. And if your right hand causes you to sin, cut it off and throw it away from you. It is better for you to lose one of your body parts than to have your whole body go into hell.”
Teaching about Divorce
“It was also said, ‘Whoever divorces his wife must give her a written notice of divorce.’ But I say to you, any man who divorces his wife, except for sexual immorality, causes her to commit adultery, and whoever marries a divorced woman commits adultery.”
Teaching about Oaths
“Again, you have heard that it was told those who lived long ago, ‘You must not swear an oath falsely,’ but, ‘You must fulfill your oaths to the Lord.’ But I tell you not to swear at all, neither by heaven, because it is God’s throne, nor by the earth, because it is his footstool, nor by Jerusalem, because it is the city of the Great King. Nor should you swear by your head, because you cannot make one hair white or black. Instead, let your message be ‘Yes’ for ‘Yes’ and ‘No’ for ‘No.’ Anything more than that comes from the evil one.”
Teaching about Retaliation
“You have heard that it was said, ‘An eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth.’ But I tell you not to resist an evildoer. On the contrary, whoever slaps you on the right cheek, turn the other to him as well. If anyone wants to sue you and take your shirt, let him have your coat as well. And if anyone forces you to go one mile, go two with him. Give to the person who asks you for something, and do not turn away from the person who wants to borrow something from you.”
Teaching about Love for Enemies
“You have heard that it was said, ‘You must love your neighbour’ and hate your enemy. But I say to you, love your enemies, and pray for those who persecute you, so that you will become children of your Father in heaven, because he makes his sun rise on both evil and good people, and he lets rain fall on the righteous and the unrighteous. If you love those who love you, what reward will you have? Even the tax collectors do the same, don’t they? And if you greet only your relatives, that’s no great thing you’re doing, is it? Even the unbelievers do the same, don’t they? So be perfect, as your heavenly Father is perfect.”
Window 9 (VIs): The small window above main door: St Osmond, St Lawrence and St Frideswide.
The window over the south doorway was the gift of Major Edward Robert Portal of Eddington House. The Church Inventory 1940-90 records that it was installed in 1900. (It is understood that the treble bell (of the old pre-1978 set of bells) was given by Major Portal in memory of his son Nigel Hugh at the same time. Major Portal also gave the Chancel Screen (now at the west end of the church) in 1923, and windows in St Mary's Newtown.)
The window is by Clayton and Bell, one of the largest Victorian stained glass manufacturers.
It commemorates the connection of Hungerford Church both with the Priory of St Frideswide at Oxford, and with the diocese of Sarum:
- in the left (east) light is St. Osmund, Bishop of Sarum 1078-1099, a nephew of William the Conqueror. For over 700 years the Parish of Hungerford was in the Diocese of Sarum (Salisbury), but in 1836 it was transferred to the Diocese of Oxford,
- in the central light is St. Lawrence to whom the church is dedicated. He is shown, vested as a Deacon, with a book in his right hand, and a gridiron, the instrument of martyrdom, in his left hand. The crown is the symbol of his martyrdom. (In the window near the gallery stair, St Lawrence also figures, this time holding a book and pen), and
- in the right (west) light is St. Frideswide. The earliest record of a church at Hungerford dates from 1147, when the Priory of St Frideswide at Oxford exchanged the church of Beaumont in Normandy for the "Manor of Hudden and the vill of Edineton", one third of the tithings to be reserved for the church at Hungerford on the understanding that no church be built at Eddington. St Frideswide's Priory at Oxford was surrendered to Henry VIII in 1522 and formed part of Cardinal Wolsey's foundation which is now Christchurch. St Frideswide died in 740. She became Abbess of Osney and is regarded as the Patroness of the Diocese of Oxford.
Window 10 (VIIIs): "I am the Alpha and the Omega" - Revelation 1:8, 21:6, and 22:13
In the vestry, west wall. It is no longer possible to view the whole of this window as it is partly obscured by the vestry ceiling.
The window shows St Lawrence, patron saint of the church, holding a book in one hand, and a pen in the other, indicating the office he held as Archdeacon of Rome and the value he placed upon Church records, even at the final cost of his life. The supporting lights bear the Alpha and Omega, a chalice, and the Star of David.
The glass bears also the inscription "W Collins", father of the famous Wilkie Collins (according to John Betjeman". (From the Church Inventory, 1940-90).
After the 1814-16 rebuilding of the church, this window was originally the main east window, appropriately depicting St Lawrence - "I am the Alpha and the Omega", and surmounted by the Crescent & Star badge of Hungerford.
In 1887, as part of the 1880-1889 restoration, the chancel and the east window were completely rebuilt, and part of the "Alpha & Omega" window was moved to its present site - in Window 10 (VIIIs) in the vestry, but without the badge of Hungerford. Some of this unused glass wformas part of the current East Window. .
Notes by Rev Finch (HHA Archive) include "The East Window (5 I) is filled with glass which was placed in position at the Restoration (1880) and is in substitution for the glass now in the South West window (10 VIIIs)".
- the Church Monuments (wall and floor monuments) inside the church, and
- the Monumental Inscriptions on the many tombs in St Lawrence churchyard.