You are in [Places] [High Street Properties] [Demolished for Railway Bridge (East)]
[-->120 High Street] [-->121 (now 120a) High Street]

Summary:

Earliest information: <1470 (?1312)
Original estate: Hungerford
Listed? No
Common Rights? Yes (2 rights) (Frontage total 67ft; total 4 horses or 8 cows)
Date of current building: n/a

Thumbnail History:

Two properties were demolished in 1862 when the railway was extended through the town to the west.

Southern (right side): Quit rent 1s 1d. [This unusual amount may have been due originally to the accompaniment of large acreage of land] Haseldon + Pauncefot + Stubbs -> Woderof -> Norris -> Bakery (Litman John Coxhead, baker William Coxhead, baker) -> George Bathe Cundell -> Mrs. Spearing -> 1861 GWR Railway Bridge

Northern (left side): Smyght Smithy (Arnold Baker) -> Inn (Dollman Allen Dollman "The Crown" inn Dyer) -> Apothecaries (Clempson sne then jnr) -> Mrs. Thistlethwaite -> John Coxhead, grocer -> Stephen Pearce -> Miss Tanner -> Matthews -> Joseph Cundell -> GWR Railway Bridge

Description of property:

Photo Gallery:

p3030939
p3030939 p3030939

- Railway Bridge, Feb 2007

Timeline:

Southern (right side) Property:

<1470 (NH) John Haseldon and Pauncefot, q.r. 3½d., and Andreas (or Andrew) Stubbs, q.r. 10d. Total = 1s 1½d (later rounded off to 1s 1d).

- (NH) A John Haselden, husbandman, flourished in the early part of the fifteenth century; he is given a pardon in 1420 (Patent Rolls) for not appearing in court to answer a plea of debt. He himself was termed "the younger", so there must have been an even earlier John Haselden.

- In 1448/9 a John Haselden was the town "prepositus" or reeve.

- Andrew Stubbe's name appears in several documents between 1312 and 1338.

- These two instances are good examples of the time factor which may lie behind the use in c.1470 of the phrase "late" (in this case perhaps 50 years or more earlier) and "previously" (in this case possibly 150 years). They normally would refer to the person from whom the property was "late" purchased and the earliest known or recorded owner to whom the deeds might refer "previously". Thus a reference to an identifiable owner of the burgage such as Andrew Stubbe can take the history of this site, and of course the history of the burgage strip system, very much further back than the earliest surviving rental taken c.1470.

1470 (NH) John Woderof. The earliest record we have of these two burgage sites (southern and northern) commences with a Duchy of Lancaster rental of c.1470 (PRO: DL43/1/4) which lists a three quarter burgage at a quit rent of 6d p.a., owned by Joanna Smyght, widow. Immediately to the south of Joan Smyght's burgage site, John Woderof had two tenements – one a half burgage (or just under), late John Haselden's, and previously owned by one Pauncefot, quit rent 3½ d; and another quarter of a burgage, also late John Haselden's, which had at some time previously belonged to Andreas or Andrew Stubbe, quit rent 10d. These two quite rents total 1s 1½ d, a sum at some later date to be rounded off as 1s 1d.

1663 (NH - Hearth Tax) Norris?

1676 (NH - QR) John Norris q.r. 1s 1d.

1753-74 (QR) William Litman for his house, q.r. 1s 1d.
- (NH) William Litman was a baker, and had been Constable in 1743. He died 24 March 1762. His wife Ursula died in October of that same year. His will (PRO PROB 11/875 f.161) makes no mention of children, nor are any baptisms recorded in the Hungerford Parish Register. Since he was a baker, it is likely that he employed John Coxhead, ultimately selling or bequeathing him the business. His will makes no mention of the property, so no doubt it had already been the subject of an agreement with John Coxhead.
1757 (NH) William Litman (see 120HS)

1774-90 (QR) John Coxhead, baker for his house, q.r. 1s 1d
1777 (CL) John Coxhead baker
1781 (CL) John Coxhead baker
1785 (CL) John Coxhead baker

1768 (NH) Berkshire Poll Book:
- [GWR] John Coxhead, freehold messuage in Hungerford, rec. by Joseph Coxhead
- [GWR] John Coxhead, freehold messuage in Hungerford, rec. by Richard Gibbs

1796 (UBD) John Coxhead, baker
1795-1804 (QR)John Coxhead baker for his house, q.r. 1s 1d.

1796 (NH) Berkshire Poll Book:
- [GWR] John Coxhead, freehold messuage in Hungerford, rec. by himself
- [GWR] John Coxhead, freehold messuage and land in Hungerford, rec. by Stephen Barrett.

1805-17 (QR) William Coxhead baker (amended to George Bathe Cundell) for his house late John Coxhead, q.r. 1s 1d. [George Bathe Cundell was a prominent local attorney]
1818-23 (QR) George Bathe Cundell for his house late Coxhead, q.r. 1s 1d.
1819 (EA) "Cundell"
1832 (QR) George Bathe Cundell for his house late John Coxhead baker, q.r. 1s 1d.
1836 (QR) G.Bathe Cundell, for house late John Coxhead baker. QR 1s 1d.

1843 (CL) Mrs Spearing
1847 (CL) Devisees of widow Spearing (own); Void (occ)

1851 (CS) ?James Swallow (27), butcher. ?John Foster (35), tailor, emp 1 man.

1861 (CL) Company of GWR owned, occ by Hanson

1862 Railway bridge built

Northern (left side) Property:

c.1470 (NH) Joanna Smyght (or Smith). The earliest record we have of these two burgage sites (southern and northern) commences with a Duchy of Lancaster rental of c.1470 (PRO: DL43/1/4) which lists a three quarter burgage at a quit rent of 6d p.a., owned by Joanna Smyght, widow.
- A John Smyght (or Smith) witnessed a town deed in 1420 and by 1423 was dead. His wife was named Agnes, so he is unlikely to have been the husband of Joan. If, however, he had sons (or grandsons) Joan might well have married one of them. Certainly the John Smyght of 1420 or earlier owned various pieces of property in Hungerford.

<1552 (NH) William Arnold (see 1552 entry below).

- (NH) In 1511 a foot of fine (Trin. Term 3 Henry VIII) records the sale of 1 tenement and 1 acre of land by William Arnold and his wife Agnes to William Faller (Fawler). As a terrier of 1513 refers to William's land in Middlefield, it is possible that this fine representes a mortgage. Certainly in a muster of 1522 Agnes Arnold, by now a widow, is listed as a freeholder. A more interesting reference, however, is that provided by a law suit in 1505 (DL1/18/S2 (b)) in which reference is made to "one Arnold, a smith, dwelling in Hungerford".

- (NH) William Arnold, we are told (?..?), was a smith and as such he was sent for to provide a pair of manacles for a felon.

- In 1511 he sold his property (PRO DL1/18/52b), or more probably mortgaged it, for his widow Agnes Arnold is listed as a freeholder in 1522 (?..?). That his property should have been taken over by Nicholas Baker is not surprising, for Nicholas also was a smith.

1552 (NH) Nicholas Baker. By 1552 widow Smyght's holding (N) seems to have become the property of Nicholas Baker, together with the addition of 1 acre (which may perhaps account for an increase in quit rent to 8d), late in the tenure of William Arnold.

- Nicholas Baker seems to have built a smithy in the forefront of the building, for in 1552 the property is described as one tenement with 1 acre of land late in the tenure of William Arnold, quit rent 8d. and one "le travers in the High Street facing the lord's hospice", quit rent 4d, both properties being held by Nicholas Baker.

- The lord's hospice was the building known as the Swan and which may have been set back somewhat from the street at that time. Today the site of the Swan is occupied by the International Stores [now the entrance to Somerfield car-park – HLP]. What, however, was a "traves" or "travers"? The derivation of the word is not immediately obvious, but a manorial court roll for 1450 records that Thomas Bukland alias Smith paid 2d quit rent for a "travers", 8 foot in length by 3 foot in breadth, in the High Street, for shoeing horses ("ad equos ferrandum"). "Le travers", therefore, was a workshop (French "travailler") or smithy. Hence Thomas Bukland's alias of "Smith". This premise had been granted to him by court roll dated 1466 for the term of his life. Ministers' Accounts for 1487 (DL691/11193) repeat these details and may indicate that Thomas was still alive then.

- The size of the "travers" 8' by 3' is unusual, smaller than many of the stallholdings which had been granted to other traders in the area of the market place. A similar sized plot of ground had been granted in 1431/2 to Ralph Tanner (and his wife Lucy) (Ministers' Accounts), who may thus have been a predecessor of Thomas Bukland who acquired the site in 1466, Ralph Tanner having disappeared from the Ministers' Accounts by 1468/9.

- No further reference has been found to "le travers". Perhaps the smithy at this place was superseded by one elsewhere; perhaps the street frontage was required by the lord for some other purpose. We do not know; but we do know that Nicholas Baker's son and heir Ralph was a shoemaker by trade (this was in 1565) (?..?).

1573 (NH) John Dollman, innholder. The holder of the burgage (N) in 1573 was John Dollman, who as a deponent in the "missing charters" case of that year (?..?) describes himself as an innholder, aged 25. He was successful in business and in 1585/6 he was made Constable.

- In 1573 his holding was stated to be one tenement, with garden, backside and orchard, together with 1½ acres of arable land in Sandon Fee, quit rent 8d. (?..?).

- When he died in 1589 the parish register also described him as innholder. The term "innholder" it may be noted implies a difference from "innkeeper". The latter is merely one who "keeps" or manages an inn or premises owned by another, but an innholder is one who "holds" an inn, is the freeholder of the premises.

1591 (NH) William Allen (who had married John Dollman's widow, Margaret Dollman). Some 7 or 8 months after the death of John Dollman his widow Margaret married William Allen, who thus acquired the property during Margaret's lifetime, for in 1591 the town survery (?..?) lists William as holding a tenement identical in description with that held by John Dollman in 1573.

1609 (NH) Tristram Dollman. In the survey of 1609 it was held by Tristram Dollman. Tristram's relationship to John is not known, and his baptism was not recorded in Hungerford. It is certain, however, that he was John's heir, since this is explicitly stated in Tristram's admission to the Hocktide Court in 1594. He was certainly running a business which employed servants in 1597 and 1601, as entries in the parish register indicate, and another entry in January 1601/2 registering the baptism of his daughter Margaret names his inn as the Crown.

1618 (NH) Tristram Dollman died in 1618 and in 1620 the Hocktide Court Book records the transfer of his property to John Dollman.

1620 (NH) John Dollman. This was only held by John as a temporary measure, however.

1621 (NH) Thomas Dyer¸innkeeper (probably previously a fishmonger, of London). In the following year (1621) John and Alice Dollman sold 1 messuage, with garden, orchard and 1 acre of land to Thomas Dyer, as is indicated by a Foot of Fine. The Transaction was not recorded in the Hocktide Court (which was not infrequently late in recording such changes) until 1623, having admitted Thomas Dyer as innkeeper in the preceding year.

- It is likely that John Dollman was the same John Dollman fishmonger and citizen of London who was bound for the provision of an inventory of Tristram's premises, he having died intestate, and that he was John, son of John Dollman, who was born 1572 (Hungerford Parish Register). The relationship of the various Dollmans in Hungerford is difficult to disentangle, but from the death of Tristram in 1618 the family connection with the town declines.

- The position of this house is confirmed by the record of the Court Baron 4 Oct 7 Chas. I (1631) where it is reported that the palings of the tenement of Thomas Dyer are greatly in decay; and also he is instructed to scour and cleanse the outlet from his privy which is near the house of John Gunter. The privies of inns were, of course, particular nuisances to their neighbours.

- Gunter ws the tenant of the neighbouring manor house, known as the Swan.

- Thomas Dyer had not remade the pales by March 1632 and was threatened with a 20s fine if he did not do so by April 7th. [But, Dyer does not appear on the Court Baron lists of tenants, nor John Dolman].

1658-60 (NH) William Dyer. Thomas Dyer continued to hold the property until his death in 1658, and his burial entry reveals that the inn was still called the "Crown". Upon his death, the inn passed to his son and heir William Dyer (Hocktide Court Book, 1660).

1663 (NH Hearth Tax PRO E179/243/25) William Dyer is liable for 5 hearths, but in December 1663 the 5 had been deleted, and 6 superscribed. This number of hearths indicated the house either of a well-to-do townsman or, as in this case, an inn which, by nature of its occupation, required more rooms to be heated than would be likely in most private premises. In either case the house would be reasonably substantial.

1673 (NH) George Clempson, apothecary. Dyer sold in 1673 to George Clempson (Feet of Fine, 25 Chas II Hilary Term); and Clempson is listed as the householder in the 1676 quit rent roll. Whether George Clempson carried on the business of innholder is not known, for he is invariably described as either "gent" or "apothecary". Neither the status of "gent" nor the occupation of "apothecary", however, would necessarily debar him from innholding also.
- George Clempson was an apothecary, admitted to the Hocktide Court in 1672, and a foot of fine (25 Chas II Hilary Term) in 1673 records his purchase.
- He died in February 1687/8 and was succeeded as an apothecary by his son Thomas.

1687/8 (NH) William Dyer was buried in Kintbury in 1687/8 and a John Dyer was buried there in 1689.

1687/88 (NH) ?Thomas Clempson, apothecary. When Clempson died in 1687/8 (Hungerfod parish register) we do not know what happened to the property, but since his son Thomas continued his father's business as apothecary it is probable that he continued it in the same premises.

- This supposition is supported by the Commoners' Lists of the period in which Thomas Clempson is positioned adjoining the owner of the property we have indicated as (S).

- Thomas Clempson died in 1724, and a Mary Clempson widow was buried in 1746.

- An insurance policy was taken out by her in 1743 on her dwelling house and brewhouse (Sun Fire Insurance records, vol. 67).

- Thomas Clempson died in 1724 and his widow Mary Clempson died in 1746 (Parish Register).

- In 1743 Mary Clempson took out an insurance on her dwelling house and brewhouse. If we assume that the property (N) remained with the Clempson family until the death of Mary, the details of the insurance give us some idea of the building's structure at that time. It is then described as a dwelling house and brewhouse in one building and a stable adjoining. The building was of brick and tiled. It was insured for £300. There is nothing in the particulars themselves, of course, which enable us to identify the building with absolute certainty.

1753-74 (QR) Mrs Mary Thistlethwaite for her house, q.r. 6d

1774-90 (QR) John Coxhead, grocer for his house, q.r. 6d
1777 (CL) (a) John Coxhead grocer
1781 (CL) (a) John Coxhead grocer
1785 (CL) (a) John Coxhead grocer
1796 (UBD) John Coxhead, shopkeeper
1795-1804 (QR) John Coxhead grocer for his house, q.r. 6d.

1805-17 (QR) Stephen Pearce (amended to Miss Tanner's) for house late John Coxhead, q.r. 6d.
1819 (EA) John Pearce (has thoroughfare ?Everlands Road).

1818-23 (QR) Miss Tanner's (amended to John Matthews) late John Coxhead for house, q.r. 6d.
1832 (QR) John Matthews, late John Coxhead grocer, afterwards Barrett, q.r. 6d.
1836 (QR) John Matthews, for house late John Coxhead grocer, q.r. 6d.

1843 (CL) Joseph Cundell
1847 (CL) G.B. Cundell (own); Joseph Cundell & Andrew Heath (occ)

1851 (CS) ?Edward Elliott (22), stoker. ?Henry Dyer (37), railway clerk

1861 (CL) Company of GWR owned, occ by Holmden and another

1862 Railway bridge built

Railway Bridge:

1862 Railway bridge built
1896 (CL) (N) Great Western Railway for House late Cundell's"
1896 (CL) (S) Great Western Railway for House late Spearing's"

1902 (T&M Register) Great Western Railway (owners)
1903 (T&M Register) Bekrs & Hants Extension Railway Co. (occupier)

<1968 (T&M Register) British Railways
1914 (CL) Great Western Railway for House late Cundell's"
1914 (CL) Great Western Railway for House late Spearing's"
c.1932 (CL #16, i.e. south / right) G.W.R. for "House formerly John Coxhead's then G.B.Cundell", q.r. 1s 1d.
c.1932 (CL #15, i.e. north / left) G.W.R. for "House formerly Matthews late Mrs Spearings", q.r. 6d.

1947-1970 (CL) British Railways x2
1976-2000 (CL) Void x2

From Norman Hidden's papers:

The G.W.R. Railway Bridge - The "Missing" Burgages

The extension of the railway beyond Hungerford in the direction of Devizes, proposed in 1859 and opened in 1862, resulted in the need to cross the High Street by means of a railway bridge (1 - Pihlens, The Story of Hungerford, Newbury, 1983, p. 42). To make space for this bridge, houses in the High Street were purchased and demolished on either side. On the east side the two houses, with their respective burgage plots, which were affected were those which lay between the present no. 121 on the north and no.120 on their south side.

By this purchase the G.W.R. became entitled to commoners rights in respect of the two burgages involved and correspondingly paid the annual quit rent, as it had been paid for centuries before (2 -Quit Rent List, undated but early 20th. century)

A Commoners List dated 1861 shows that the two properties were owned by the G.W.R.., but had not yet been demolished, that on the north side being occupied by one Holmden and another, and that on the south side being occupied by one Hanson (3-C.L. List,1861). Through similar Commoners' Lists or Quit Rent Rolls one can trace previous owners or occupants.

1847 (N) owned by G.B.Cundell, occupied by Joseph Cundell and Andrew Heath; (S) owned by the devisees of widow Spearing and void of occupants.

1843 (N) owned by Joseph Cundell; (S) owned by Mrs. Spearing. (4 - Commoners Lists 1847, 1843)

1836 (N) John Matthews, late John Coxhead grocer, quit rent 6d. (S) G.B.Cundell, late John Coxhead baker, quit rent 1s 1d.

1832 (N) John Matthews,late John Coxhead grocer,afterwards Barret ; (S) G. Bath Cundell, late John Coxhead,

1818 (N) Miss Tanner, late John Coxhead, [later John Matthews]; (S) George Bathe Cundell, late John Coxhead,

1805 (N) Stephen Pearce deleted, Miss Tanner, late John Coxhead; (S) William Coxhead baker deleted, George Bathe Cundell, late John Coxhead

1795 (N) John Coxhead grocer (S) John Coxhead baker (5 - Berks R.O., Hungerford Quit Rent Rolls H/FR 4,5,6,7,8).

In each of the above quit rent rolls the quit rent payable remains unchanged, as it had done for centuries, viz. for the northern of the two properties 6d. p.a. and for the southern one 1 shilling and 1d. The odd amount of the southernmost property was due originally no doubt to the accompaniment of large acreage of land; whatever the cause, however, the unusual nature of the sum contributes towards an easier identification of the property than could otherwise be the case.

George Bathe Cundell was a prominent local attorney.

John Coxhead grocer and John Coxhead baker were, as their trade appellations distinguish, two separate persons. They were probably cousins, both members of the numerous Coxhead family. Some branches of their family lived in Charnham Street, others in Sanden Fee, yet others in the town of Hungerford and in Hidden or Eddington. The family has provided a series of Constables of the town, commencing with John Coxhead in 1658 and followed by Jonathan (1724), John 1770, 1772, 1787 (these may not all be the same man), and William 1786. It is extremely difficult to distinguish between various members of this family.

Preliminary attempts to distinguish them suggest that John who was Constable in 1787 was a tallow chandler, who lived in Charnham Street, that he was baptised in 1737, married in 1762 was still in Hungerford in 1801 (6 – notes concerning the Coxhead family at the Society of Genealogists). He is likely to be the John Coxhead grocer in the 1795 Quit Rent Roll, but this is not positively proved. There is no burial record for him in Hungerford up to the end of 1800 (years later than this have not yet been searched), but his wife Mary is said (6) to have been buried at Barnet in 1811 aged 72 years.

The John Coxhead baker probably was the John Coxhead who died in January 1797. He clearly was succeeded by William. The latter may be William s/o John and Elizabeth Coxhead, baptised June 1753, married 1781. No burial before 1800. Universal Directory 1796 describes him as shopkeeper. Poll Book 1796 has two William Coxheads, both freeholders. The William who was Constable in 1786 was a cabinet maker; his D.C.W. will was dated 1787 and proven 1794. He died 1788 and his widow married John Banister (6).

John Coxhead, baker is said to be the brother of this William, both being sons on Benjamin of Sanden Fee (1696-1766). He was executor of his father's will in 1767. He is described in the Churchwardens Accounts (1767?) as being a baker (6). The PCC will is available at the PRO and should be checked.

Further details of occupation of the two properties are given by the Berkshire Poll Books for 1796 and 1768. These show that John the grocer seems to have leased his property to tenants (1768 to Richard Gibbs; 1796 to Stephen Barrett); whereas John the baker remained in occupation of his. Richard Gibbs incidentally married Sarah Coxhead in 1766. It seems likely that John Coxhead grocer came from the Charnham Street branch of the Coxheads, and John the baker from that in Sanden Fee.

To return to the records of properties pre-1795: the names of these two John Coxheads as freeholders recur on Commoners Lists for 1785, 1781, 1777 and on the Quit Rent Roll of 1774, with details exactly as before. And as we already know from the Poll Book, they were both in possession in 1768. We do not know, however, at what date they acquired the properties. The deeds of a neighbouring house, viz modern no. 120HS, show that in 1785 John Coxhead was on the north side of No 120HS (i.e. the property we have marked (S)); but in 1757 no. 120HS had on its north side William Litman, a circumstance which ties in well with the 1753 Quit Rent Roll which shows the two properties as follows:

1753 (N) Mrs Mary Thistlethwayte quit rent 6d;

1753 (S) William Litman, quit rent 1s 1d.

This William Litman was a baker, had been Constable in 1743, and died 24 March 1762. His wife Ursula died in October of that same year. His will (PRO PROB 11/875 f.161) makes no mention of children, nor are any baptisms recorded in the Hungerford Parish Register. Since he was a baker, it is likely that he employed John Coxhead, ultimately selling or bequeathing him the business. His will makes no mention of the property, so no doubt it had already been the subject of an agreement with John Coxhead.

The next Quit Rent Roll is not until 1676, which records:

(N) George Clempson, quit rent 6d.

(S) John Norris, quit rent 1s 1d.

George Clempson was an apothecary, admitted to the Hocktide Court in 1672, and a Foot of Fine (25 Chas II Hilary Term) in 1673 records his purchase. He died in February 1687/8 and was succeeded as an apothecary by his son Thomas. Thomas died in 1724 and his widow Mary in 1746 (Parish Register). In 1743 Mary Clempson took out an insurance on her dwelling house and brewhouse. If we assume that this property (N) remained with the Clempson family until the death of Mary, the details of the insurance give us some idea of the building's structure at that time. It is then described as a dwelling house and brewhouse in one building and a stable adjoining. The building was of brick and tiled. It was insured for £300. There is nothing in the particulars themselves, of course, which enable us to identify the building with absolute certainty.

PART TWO:

The earliest record we have of these two burgage sites commences with a Duchy of Lancaster rental of c.1470 (PRO: DL43/1/4) which lists a three quarter burgage at a quit rent of 6d p.a., owned by Joanna Smyght, widow. This is recognisable as the property referred in Part I above as (N). A John Smyght (or Smith) witnessed a town deed in 1420 and by 1423 was dead. His wife was named Agnes, so he is unklikely to have been the husband of Joan. If, however, he had sons (or grandsons) Joan might well have married one of them. Certainly the John Smyght of 1420 or earier owned various pieces of property in Hungerford.

Immediately to the south of Joan Smyght's burgage site, John Woderof had two tenements – one a half burgage (or just under), late John Haselden's, and previously owned by one Pauncefot, quit rent 3½ d; and another quarter of a burgage, also late John Haselden's, which had at some time previously belonged to Andreas or Andrew Stubbe, quit rent 10d. These two quite rents total 1s 1½ d, a sum at some later date to be rounded off as 1s 1d. This is the burgage we have termed (S).

A John Haselden, husbandman, flourished in the early part of the fifteenth century; he is given a pardon in 1420 (Patent Rolls) for not appearing in court to answer a plea of debt. He himselfwas termed "the younger", so there must have been an even earlier John Haselden. In 1448/9 a John Haselden was the town "prepositus" or reeve. Andrew Stubbe's name appears in several documents between 1312 and 1338. These two instances are good examples of the time factor which may lie behind the use in c.1470 of the phrase "late" (in this case perhaps 50 years or more earlier) and "previously" (in this case possibly 150 years). They normally would refer to the person from whom the property was "late" purchased and the earliest known or recorded owner to whom the deeds might refer "previously". Thus a reference to an identifiable owner of the burgage such as Andrew Stubbe can take the history of this site, and of course the history of the burgage strip system, very much further back than the earliest surviving rental taken c.1470.

By 1552 widow Smyght's holding (N) seems to have become the property of Nicholas Baker, together with the addition of 1 acre (which may perhaps account for an increase in quit rent to 8d), late in the tenure of William Arnold. William Arnold, we are told (?..?), was a smith and as such he was sent for to provide a pair of manacles for a felon. In 1511 he sold his property (PRO DL1/18/52b), or more probably mortgaged it, for his widow Agnes is listed as a freeholder in 1522 (?..?). That his property should have been taken over by Nicholas Baker is not surprising, for Nicholas also was a smith.

Indeed Nicholas seems to have built a smithy in the forefront of the building, for in 1552 the property is described as one tenement with 1 acre of land late in the tenure of William Arnold, quit rent 8d. and one "le travers in the High Street facing the lord's hospice", quit rent 4d, both properties being held by Nicholas Baker. The lord's hospice was the building known as the Swan and which may have been set back somewhat from the street at that time. Today the site of the Swan is occupied by the International Stores. What, however, was a "traves" or "travers"? The derivation of the word is not immediately obvious, but a manorial court roll for 1450 records that Thomas Bukland alias Smith paid 2d quit rent for a "travers", 8 foot in length by 3 foot in breadth, in the High Street, for shoeing horses ("ad equos ferrandum"). "Le travers", therefore, was a worshop (French "travailler") or smithy. Hence Thomas Bukland's alias of "Smith". This premise had been granted to him by court roll dated 1466 for the term of his life. Ministers' Accounts for 1487 (DL691/11193) repeat these details and may indicate that Thomas was still alive then.

In 1511 a Foot of Fine (Trin. Term 3 Henry VIII) records the sale of 1 tenement and 1 acre of land by William Arnold and his wife Agnes to William Faller (Fawler). As a terrier of 1513 refers to William's land in Middlefield, it is possible that this fine representes a mortgage. Certainly in a muster of 1522 Agnes Arnold, by now a widow, is listed as a freeholder. A more interesting reference, however, is that provided by a law suit in 1505 (DL1/18/S2 (b)) in which reference is made to "one Arnold, a smith, dwelling in Hungerford".

The size of the "travers" 8' by 3' is unusual, smaller than many of the stallholdings which had been granted to other traders in the area of the market place. A similar sized plot of ground had been granted in 1431/2 to Ralph Tanner (and his wife Lucy) (Ministers' Accounts), who may thus have been a predecessor of Thomas Bukland who acquired the site in 1466, Ralph Tanner having disappeared from the Ministers' Accounts by 1468/9.

No further reference has been found to "le travers". Perhaps the smithy at this place was superseded by one elsewhere; perhaps the street frontage was required by the lord for some other purpose. We do not know; but we do know that Nicholas Baker's son and heir Ralph was a shoemaker by trade (this was in 1565) (?..?).

The holder of the burgage (N) in 1573 was John Dollman, who as a deponent in the "missing charters" case of that year (?..?) describes himself as an innholder, aged 25. He was successful in business and in 1585/6 he was made Constable. In 1573 his holding was stated to be one tenement, with garden, backside and orchard, together with 1½ acres of arable land in Sandon Fee, quit rent 8d. (?..?). When he died in 1589 the parish register also described him as innholder. The term "innholder" it may be noted implies a difference from "innkeeper". The latter is merely one who "keeps" or manages an inn or premises owned by another, but an innholder is one who "holds" an inn, is the freeholder of the premises.

Some 7 or 8 months after the death of John Dollman his widow Margaret married William Allen, who thus acquired the property during Margaret's lifetime, for in 1591 the town survery (?..?) lists William as holding a tenement identical in description with that held by John Dollman in 1573. In the survey of 1609 it was held by Tristram Dollman. Tristram's relationship to John is not known, and his baptism was not recorded in Hungerford. It is certain, however, that he was John's heir, since this is explicitly stated in Tristram's admission to the Hocktide Court in 1594. He was certainly running a business which employed servants in 1597 and 1601, as entries in the parish register indicate, and another entry in January 1601/2 registering the baptism of his daughter Margaret names his inn as the Crown.

Tristram died in 1618 and in 1620 the Hocktide Court Book records the transfer of his property to John Dollman. This was only held by John as a temporary measure, however, for in the following year (1621) he and Alice his wife sold 1 messuage, with garden, orchard and 1 acre of land to Thomas Dyer, as is indicated by a Foot of Fine. The Transaction was not recorded in the Hocktide Court (which was not infrequently late in recording such changes) until 1623, having admitted Thomas Dyer as innkeeper in the preceding year. It is likely that John was the same John Dollman fishmonger and citizen of London who was bound for the provision of an inventory of Tristram's premises, he having died intestate, and that he was John, son of John Dollman, who was born 1572 (Hungerford Parish Register). The relationship of the various Dollmans in Hungerford is difficult to disentangle, but from the death of Tristram in 1618 the family connection with the town declines.

The position of this house is confirmed by the record of the Court Baron 4 Oct 7 Chas. I (1631) where it is reported that the palings of the tenement of Thomas Dyer are greatly in decay; and also he is instructed to scour and cleanse the outlet from his privy which is near the house of John Gunter. The privies of inns were, of course, particular nuisances to their neighbours. Gunter ws the tenant of the neighbouring manor house, known as the Swan. Thos. Dyer had not remade the pales by March 1632 and was threatened with a 20s fine if he did not do so by April 7th. [But, Dyer does not appear on the Court Baron lists of tenants, nor John Dolman].

Thomas Dyer continued to hold the property until his death in 1658, and his burial entry reveals that the inn was still called the Crown. Upon his death, the inn passed to his son and heir William Dyer (Hocktide Court Book, 1660). The Hearth Tax list if 1663 (PRO E179/243/25) states that William Dyer is liable for 5 hearths, but in December 1663 the 5 had been deleted, and 6 superscribed. This number of hearths indicated the house either of a well-to-do townsman or, as in this case, an inn which, by nature of its occupation, required more rooms to be heated than would be likely in most private premises. In either case the house would be reasonably substantial.

Dyer sold in 1673 to George Clempson (Feet of Fine, 25 Chas II Hilary Term); and Clempson is listed as the householder in the 1676 quit rent roll. Whether he carried on the business of innholder is not known, for he is invariably described as either "gent" or "apothecary". Neither the status of "gent" nor the occupation of "apothecary", however, would necessarily debar him from innholding also.

William Dyer was buried in Kintbury in 1687/8 and a John Dyer was buried there in 1689. When Clempson died in 1687/8 (Hungerford parish register) we do not know what happened to the property, but since his son Thomas continued his father's business as apothecary it is probable that he continued it in the same premises. This supposition is supported by the Commoners' Lists of the period in which Thomas Clempson is positioned adjoining the owner of the property we have indicated as (S). Thomas Clempson died in 1724, and a Mary Clempson widow was buried in 1746. An insurance policy was taken out by her in 1743 on her dwelling house and brewhouse (Sun Fire Insurance records, vol. 67).